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The Container Corporation of America’s (CCA) plant in Circleville produced paper and fiberboard used in the manufacture of packaging products from 1884 until it’s closure in 1998. Until 1958, the mill used straw pulp to produce it’s paper – mills of this type were therefore known as “strawboard mills” within the industry and by the public. Strawboard mills were relatively common in wheat-growing areas of the country from the late 1800’s to the mid-1900’s.
CCA’s Circleville mill was locally referred to as “The Strawboard”. It occupied a thirty-acre site on the southwest side of Circleville, bordered by today’s Mill Street on the north, Ohio Street on the south, the N&W railroad on the east and (originally) the Scioto River on the west. The western boundary moved to the east as sections of the company’s straw yard were purchased (under objection) for the construction of the C&O railroad in the late twenties and the US 23 bypass in the mid-fifties.
This page will focus on the plant’s history and operation prior to 1958 – the year that straw was replaced by wood for paper production.
The mill was built in 1884 by the Portage Strawboard Company of Akron, then merged with the American Strawboard Company of New York in 1889. In 1920, the Mid-West Box Company bought a controlling interest in American Stawboard and the two companies subsequently consolidated in 1921-1922. Mid-West Box Company came under the control of the Container Corporation of America (CCA) in 1926 and was formally purchased by the company in 1930.
In the years after the focus of this page, CCA went through additional mergers from the late sixties to the late nineties. The “Container Corporation Plant of America” name vanished about 1986 and the last merger in 1998 brought about the closure of the Circleville plant. It was subsequently leveled in 2007. For more information about these later ownership changes, and information about the artistic legacy left by CCA, see Wikipedia’s Container Corporation of America page.
In spite of the many ownership changes and many physical plant changes over the years, several of the original Portage Strawboard buildings from 1884 remained in use until the end, albeit covered by a more modern-looking veneer. These included at least one of the (original) paper machine rooms and the warehouse on the north end.
The following sections discuss the predecessors and Container Corporation in a bit more detail.
C. Barber, of Akron, formed The Portage Strawboard Company in 1882, and it’s first “works” were built that year in New Portage (later Barberton), Ohio, a suburb of Akron. Two years later, the company built the larger Circleville works with a capacity of 50 tons of paper per day.
Referring to the photo above, the long building to the right (south) of the smokestack contained the rotary and beater rooms. These rooms housed the machinery that, through a multi-step process, turned straw into pulp. The low building attached to the right end of the rotary room is the straw unloading and intake shed. On the far right of the image are a group of straw “ricks” used for storing straw bales until needed.
The gabled structure on the far left (north) was a warehouse. The building between that gabled end and the smokestack is the machine room where the pulp was turned into strawboard sheet. Next to the machine room, below the smokestack, is the powerhouse, which contained the boilers and steam engines that powered and heated the plant.
See the details listed in the American Strawboard section.
In 1889, Portage Strawboard merged with The American Strawboard Company of Chicago
. The merged company was run by Barber, operated under the American Strawboard name (which resulted in a name change for the Circleville plant), and owned plants in several eastern and mid-western states.
After Barber’s death in 1920, his family reportedly had no interest in continuing to run the company. This lead to the cessation of plant operations for about a year until a buyer was found.
According to a retrospective article in the Herald in ????, there were no improvements made to the Circleville plant during American Strawboard’s ownership. This undoubtedly led to difficulty selling the property. One source <cite the Herald article> states that General Electric was rumored to have an interest in the plant and may have purchased it “for a low price”.
Ultimately, the Mid-West Box Company of Chicago bought a controlling interest in American Strawboard in 1920, and consolidated it into their operations in 1922
See the plant description under the Portage Strawboard section.
Plant Details – 1906
- Four-machine paper mill
- 11 rotary steam cookers
- 1600 horsepower boiler
- 100 tons of straw. Most of this was purchased locally, with four boxcar loads (about forty tons) imported.
- Acid (amount and type unknown)
- One car of lime. Lime was used during the cooking process
- Four carloads of coal.
- 65 tons of finished product daily.
- Products: Strawboard is used for building purposes, for making strawboard boxes and cartridges and for many other purposes.
Mid-West Box Company
Some words about Mid-West Box here
The photo above well-illustrates the layout of the plant in 1936. The mill was by then owned by Container Corporation of America, but (based on contemporary Circleville Herald articles), it had undergone no significant external changes since American Strawboard’s ownership.
The office and warehouse are closest to the right (north) side of the photo, along Mill Street. Extending to the left are the two machine rooms, where paper was rolled. Next is the powerhouse that contained the boilers, turbines and reciprocating steam engines that provided heat and power for the rest of the building. The rotary and beater rooms, used to create the pulp used to create strawboard, are in the building behind the water tower.
The nine-year-old C&O railroad fill is visible crossing the top right corner of the photo. Between that and the building is the mostly-empty strawyard. At the top-center are a couple of straw ricks, behind which is a straw unloading dock used to unload baled straw delivered by rail.
Container Corporation of America
Some words about Container here.
A strawboard mill produces paper products using straw (as opposed to wood) as the raw material to create the pulp used to make a coarse paper called strawboard. During the early to mid 1900’s, strawboard was used for a variety of purposes, such as plain and corrugated board used for building purposes, box production, egg-crate separators and fillers, for the pads that protected fruit and other produce shipped in boxes and barrels, and wrapping paper. It could be used for finer papers, but this doesn’t appear to have been common in the U.S.
The strawboard industry was well established in wheat growing areas of the country by 1900. At that time, wheat was harvested with binders and threshed, and every wheat farm had its straw stack. Straw could be baled from these stacks year-round, providing a reliable and local (inexpensive to ship) supply for the strawboard plants. As farming practices changed – notably when the combine harvester came into general use – most of the straw stacks vanished, which in turn began starving the mills of their raw materials. The mills, including Circleville’s, were then forced to look farther afield for straw, ranging from New York to Colorado and Minnesota to Louisiana to secure enough straw for year-round operation. This eventually drove costs to the point that straw was no longer an economically viable raw material for paper production.
The use of straw as a basic raw material was abandoned by Container Corporation’s Circleville plant due to insufficient transport and supplies, and replaced by pulpwood.
- Fifty Years and Over of Akron and Summit County
- Centennial History of Summit County, Ohio and Representative Citizens
The Remainder of this page consists of un-formatted notes. This will be improved over time.
Name Timeline (from Circleville Herald article noted below):
- 1884 – Portage Strawboard Co. builds plant
- (Fifty Years and Over of Akron and Summit County)
- (History of Pickaway County, Ohio and Representative Citizens (1906))
- 1889 – Portage merges with American Strawboard Co. of Chicago
- Centennial History of Summit County, Ohio and Representative Citizens (1908)
- 1889 Sanborn Maps, LOC
- 1920 – Midwest Box Co bought controlling interest
- (Moody’s Manual of Railroads and Corporation Securities, Volume 2)
- 1921 – May. Mid-West and American Strawboard Companies Consolidated
- (Announcement in The Shears, March 1921, Volume XXIX, Number 340)
- 1930 – Container Corporation of America purchases Mid-West Box
- Midwest Straw Box Co. (source unknown)
- MID-WEST Box Co. (Moody’s Manual of Railroads and Corporation Securities, Volume 2 – 1920. Google Books)
- Container Corporation of America
Plant Details Timeline
1906 – History of Pickaway County, Ohio, and Representative Citizens (See Google bookshelf)
Mechanical: Four-machine mill with 11 rotary steam cookers, 1600 hp.
Daily Input: 100 tons of straw. Most brought in locally, four carloads imported. Acid (amount and type not stated), one car of lime used for cooking.
Four carloads of coal.
Daily Output: 65 tons of finished product daily.
Products: Strawboard is used for building purposes, for making strawboard boxes and cartridges and for many other purposes. The company owns it’s own tracks and occupies 30 acres, 10 of which are occupied by the buildings alone.
1922 – Lockwood’s Directory of the Paper and Stationary Trade (See Google bookshelf)
Mechanical: Twenty-two 1200-lb. and eight Jordan engines; one 66inch and three 86-inch Cylinders.
Daily Output: 75 tons of finished product daily (+10 vs. 1906)
Products: Widest sheet made, 80 inches. Steam. Steam Dried Straw Board, Plain and Straw Board for Corrugating.
1927 – Herald
Mechanical: 11 rotary cookers, six beaters, four machine paper driers (steam), 1600 hp (no change from 1906) electric powered machinery reduces manual moving of cooked pulp
Daily input: 1.5mm gallons water, average 14 ten ton carloads baled straw (forty tons more than total consumption in 1906), plus local straw, two cars of coal.
Daily output: 85 tons of finished product (+20 tons vs. 1906, +10 vs. 1922)
Products: 8, 9, 12 point (weight) paper, cut from 4 to 80 inches wide (looks unchanged)
1929 (April) – Herald (thorough article)
Mechanical: Four Babcock and Wilcox boilers, 350hp each. Twelve hours to cook straw (probably cooking plus beating since other sources say around 7 hours for cooking)
Daily Input: 125 tons of straw (1/3 provided by the county), four cars of unslaked lime. One car of nut and slack coal. 50,000 tons/straw/year.
Daily Output: 80 tons of finished product, 2000 tons/year
Other: 20,000 tons of straw in yard in 1927 & 1928 (doesn’t state whether this is an average or other).
5/1/1930 – Circleville Herald
Mid-west Box renamed Container Corporation of America
Not much news in middle-late thirties, excepting plant shutdowns and reopens, shift lengths, sewage plant construction and cost sharing (1937/38) and baseball.
1936-1937 – New building for the rotary room completed in 1936-37. Couldn’t find an article covering this in The Herald.
Old straw and rotary building torn down. New one was completed “last year”
4/13/1939 – Circleville Herald
Context – Coal shortage due to mining labor difficulties. Robert Ekins, manager of the Container Corporation plant, said that his plant has a supply of coal on hand sufficient to take care of operations through May 1. He said difficulty was experienced obtaining more coal.
Daily Input: The plant uses 80-85 tons of coal daily.
Daily Output: The plant has been running full time since last July with production at about 90 tons of paper daily.
Mechanical: 1000hp, 600psi boiler being installed – in operation by November. Four existing units kept for backup. Can burn OH and WV coals efficiently, expecting 20% reduction in coal usage.
Other – Stack height increasing from 110 to 160 for better draft.
Other – 800 tons of straw in a rick, valued at $8/ton purchased and ricked. 26,000 tons on grounds (most in ten years).
Output – In 1943, averaged 90 tons of strawboard per day over 351 working days
1944 – Nine Point News – CCA Employee Magazine. Article by plant manager.
Mechanical: Fourteen rotaries (14’ dia), one breaker beater, six finishing beaters, two jordans, four finishing jordans.
Underfeed 600psi automatic boiler operating at 200psi, one old boiler heating when plant is shut down. Lime Soda Ash Hot Process water softener.
1100kW 480V condensing turbo generator for current. Two direct drive turbines for jordans and vacuum pump. One 150kW 480V Ball/Burke reciprocating engine/generator used during cold weather.
Daily Input: 103 tons straw, 37 tons waste paper. 80 tons WV coal, 10.5 tons lime (calculated), 1176 pounds lye.
Daily Output: 90 tons of finished paper (1943 average)
- Consumed 36.3K tons of straw, 13.2K tons of waste paper in 1943 (required due to lack of straw), output 31.5K tons of paper.
- Normally store 10-15K tons of straw in straw yard.
- Used only wheat straw before the war, added barley, rice and and oat straw during. 60-65% of straw is converted to paper fibers
- Materials used to dissolve the straw: lime, caustic soda (lye), soda ash
- Approximate ratios for one seven hour cook: 7000 pounds wheat straw, 500 pounds lime, 28 pounds caustic soda, 2000 gallons water. Poorer qualities of straw, or partially deteriorated need less or no lye.
- Five of six finishing beaters used for straw, last for waste paper
- 200 ton coal bunker, ash silo – filled via suction line, disposed via rail or truck.
- Exhaust from jordan turbines (45psi) and Ball-Burke engine (40psi) used for paper driers (45psi) and rotary cookers (40psi).
- Condensate reused.
- Future upgrade to 600psi turbo-generator will displace mechanical turbines and Ball/Burke engine and have enough 50 pound exhaust steam for all process work.
1958 The use of straw as a basic raw material abandoned due to insufficient transport and supplies, and replaced by pulpwood. (Herald, 10/17/62 – 80,000 tons used annually). 135 people employed.
1988 – CCA Open House Document
170 tons of coal used daily. Wood chips provide 52% of what is needed for paper, the remainder coming from recycled corrugate
Sodium carbonate and water used to break down chips. The liquor is recycled via evaporators followed by “Burning” in the reactor, which produces a powder.
Modeling Notes (Exterior)
Straw Ricks: Dimensions
9/5/1925 – Straw Ricks, $10K loss. Likely due to smoking
10/4/1930 – 15 ricks, $125,000 loss. Flames seen for miles.
8/1935 – Machines 1 and 2 damaged, out of service two weeks. Forty feet of roof collapsed.
10/12/1940 – Flames Damage Big Straw Rick at Container Corporation
Likely spontaneous combustion. Each rick has 800 tons, 26,000 tons on grounds (most in ten years)
9/15/1939 – Summary: Fire in one straw rick. Damage slight. Cause unknown, may have been a locomotive spark or spontaneous combustion.
Useful fact: Ricks contain between 700 and 800 tons of straw.
1/10/1942 – Fire due to overheated bearing igniting grease. No damage assessment
05/02/1964 – Firefighter starts 26th year of service: “The Strawboard was always good for a fire when things got too quiet”
—Descriptions of processes and other commentary:—
After 7.5 hours of cooking, the pulp is emptied into the slow beaters and then pumped upstairs to other beaters where it is whirled around by faster revolving machinery and then carried into the machine rooms where it is dumped into a vat and gathered up by a revolving woolen blanket which deposits the pulp on a blanket cylinder and it is carried through a number of these until it is finally dried and it emerges at the end of the steam rollers a finished product.
Chemical department tests each car of lime for it’s calcium content and causticity, coal for it’s BTU. Finished board is tensile strength tested and liquor is analyzed. Weight and moisture content of paper is tested. All rolls ticketed with information on machine, caliper, number, weight of roll, length of roll in square measure, name of machine finisher and tender. Article lists all local and national management.
Entire product from Circleville plant sent to box plants in Chicago, Philadelphia, Natick MA, Bridgeport CT, Anderson IN, Cincinnati, Fairmont WV, Kokomo IN and Cleveland.